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独裁者被绞死了……
伊拉克的前独裁者萨达姆(Saddam Hussein)以反人类罪被吊死了,于是表演开始了。

Posted Monday, April 9, 2007

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――综述“对萨达姆之死的主要评论”


舆论要主导,而且要“上阵父子兵坐镇亲兄弟”,于是英国、美国和澳大利亚哥们几个先后粉墨登场了。

英国人说我们历来反对死刑,但是这事发生在伊拉克的法庭,是伊人做的决定。("We oppose the death penalty in all cases, regardless of the individual or the crime," said Rob Tinline, spokesman for the British Foreign Office. "[But] it's an Iraqi trial, with Iraqi defendants, in an Iraqi court — it's a decision for the Iraqi authorities.")
英国人这番话的潜台词是什么?是想说,整个事情与我们无关呢,还是想表明对萨旦姆的审判及执刑是公正的、是基于民主法律程序的呢?

对于西方世界来说,能向世人表明这是一个对独裁者公正的审判,是至关重要的;能不能说服他人是一回事,但是起码能让英国外交发言人说话的底气更足、表情更自然。

伟大的上帝信民布什总统直接上阵了,布什总统发表意义重大的专门声明,说,这是伊拉克民主进程的里程碑,虽然萨旦姆的死无助于减少伊拉克每日的杀戮;此乃伊拉克一个民主国家的胜利,从此伊国政府就可以自治、自持自受、自护了,就可以真正成为一个反恐战线的坚定盟友了。(U.S. President George W. Bush released a statement late Friday night, saying the ????ution comes "at the end of a difficult year" for the Iraqi people and for U.S. troops. "Bringing Saddam Hussein to justice will not end the violence in Iraq, but it is an important milestone on Iraq's course to becoming a democracy that can govern, sustain and defend itself, and be an ally in the war on terror.")

澳大利亚说,这是一件相当“英勇的”的事情,伊国正在勇敢地享受痛苦。(Australian Prime Minister John Howard said due process in accordance with Iraqi law was followed leading up to the execution."And I believe there's something quite heroic about a country that's going through the pain and suffering that Iraq is going through, it still extends due process to somebody who was a tyrant and a brutal suppressor and murderer of his people.")

这是典型的全球舆论模式,任何涉及全球的事情发生了,哥几个定个基调,德法日等国作个点评。有时,教皇也出来指示指示。

梵蒂岗说,我们反对死刑,即使对一个罪恶的人进行死刑也是我们所反对的。阿门!(A Vatican spokesman on Saturday called Saddam Hussein's ????ution "tragic" and said it could escalate the fighting in Iraq."The killing of the guilty is not the way to reconstruct justice and reconcile society," Rev. Federico Lombardi said in a statement. "There is rather the risk that it might fuel the spirit of vengeance and sow the seeds of new violence.")

无论是从基督博爱精神还是从当今天世界宗教的微妙关系来讲,对于处死萨达姆,梵蒂岗再也不能说错话了。教皇本笃十六世2006年9月在德国的一间大学发表演讲,谈到基督教是理性的宗教,谈到暴力与主赋予的天性和精神不同,并且引用了十四世纪拜占庭帝国皇帝曼纽尔二世的话,“让我看看穆罕默德带来什么新东西,你会发现邪恶和野蛮,以刀剑传播他所宣扬的信仰。”为了平息此番演讲带来的风波,2006年11月教皇访问土耳其,呼吁基督教与伊斯兰教之间"真挚的对话",并且表示支持土耳其加入欧盟,本笃十六世说他访问土耳其是希望在基督教为主的西欧和以穆斯林为主的土耳其之间建立一座桥梁。“真诚的话语”说了不少,可惜在访问土耳其期间教皇依然受到数万穆斯林的示威抗议。

对于处死萨达姆,“世界主流言论”强调的是此乃对独裁者的制裁,是为受萨达姆迫害的伊拉克人民申冤,这件事根本与天主教伊斯兰教之间的斗争无关。

全球舆论大谈特谈民主的胜利和独裁的灭亡。对于处死萨达姆,中国大陆的舆论又作如何反应呢?刊登在人民网上的一篇名为《从“倒萨”到“绞萨”》的文章写道:“事实上,从被推翻到被逮捕、被判刑,萨达姆这个政治符号早已成了一只“死老虎”。选择在伊拉克乱象环生而美国又迟迟拿不出新的对伊政策之时“绞萨”主要原因有三:一是要从肉体上消灭,让对萨达姆时代的怀念失去“物质凭依”;二是要对美国国内有个交代,以此作为一个阶段性的“成果”;三是以此吸引世人的眼球,淡化大家对美国向伊增兵等举措的注意力。……古语云:“庆父不死,鲁难未已。”萨达姆死了,可是伊拉克并不会因此停止教派的冲突与仇杀。“

与西方主流舆论不同,中国大陆的媒体尽量少谈不谈独裁者死亡的意义,而是着重于分析背后的国际利益和厉害冲突。长期以来,一些发达国家对发展中国家惯用手法就是利用宗教、民族等问题引起地区之间冲突,进而从中渔利和控制各方。目前伊拉克越演越烈的不同教派之间的仇杀,与美国分而治之的策略不无关系。

中国媒体选择性地评论萨达姆之死,但是,展转流动在北美欧洲等地的 “中国未来斗士”却不会放过这么一个绝好时刻,一个绝好的对中国大陆进行“政治批判”的伟大时刻。一位充满希望憧憬的作者这么写道:

“数年前骄奢淫逸的萨达姆,如今已紧步历史法西斯头目历史法西斯头目墨索里尼东条英机的后尘,被人民以同样的方式,结束了反人类恶贯满盈的一生。对于萨达姆的死,伊拉克人民当然是高兴的,看到巴格达街头人们载歌载舞的情景,不由得让人们想起30年前,以中国第一夫人为首的四人帮被粉碎时,神州大地一片欢腾的日子。1989年六四之后,罗马尼亚的齐奥塞斯库和东德昂纳克相继被人民审判,他们的鹰之犬,狗腿子们也都受到了应有的清算。现在,中国人民心目中的民族英雄米洛索维奇和萨达姆们一个个地被送上了历史的审判台,人们不禁要问:国际法庭审判台上,下一个该轮到谁?

邓小平李鹏命令军队屠城,江泽民罗干亲自镇压宗教信仰自由,目前,这些反人类的罪行已经开始送上了国际审判的程序。从亲自上马镇压西藏喇嘛,到变本加厉打压国内异见,可见胡锦涛也是一个专横跋扈的暴君,他的双手,已经沾满了种种反人类活动的血腥。“(详见章笑拳所写的《老萨已被处绞刑 人民最终审暴君》)

上述文章的内容和语调,并不罕见,正如中国大陆流亡的“英明伟大的理论家”曹长青先生早前所指出的,“中东问题的症结是民主和专制的对立,是先进和落后、文明和野蛮的冲突,要用军力铲除所有的恐怖组织”。今天,最终对独裁者执行了极刑,来自一些人群的阵阵欢呼和历史憧憬是必定的。

这位作者“笑拳”,不仅发出了公审中国政府首脑的诉求,而且“苦口婆心”地警告众多海外华人网民:
“自民大潮,浩浩荡荡,顺之者昌,逆之者亡。这样一个简单的道理,暴君的许多贱民们至今糊里糊涂,他们甘当愚民暴民,长期以来,在海外网络也经常活跃着一批愚民贱民暴民。他们狂呼东京大屠杀,叫嚣原爆洛杉矶,威胁导弹弹压民主台湾,甚至用死亡威胁恫吓网络民主人士,实际上,这一切都构成了形形色色的反人类罪行。”

如引讲来,如何把“反人类罪”罪名上层次、运用到极点,还要看中国人,估计布什总统都会自叹弗如。

其实,与其给一些华人网友扣上“反人类(协助)罪行”的帽子,还不如给“世界银行、跨国公司、自由贸易”带上反人类罪行的“桂冠”。此话从何而讲?试举一例:

地处南美中部的玻利维亚(Bolivia)政府为了履行与总部位于加州的全球公司Bechtel的合约,在本国卡恰邦布市(Cochabamba)实行戒严并且对抗议民众进行搜捕。事情的原由是,1997年世界银行要求玻政府将卡市的公共供水系统私有化,以作为援助玻国水利建设的附加条件,玻利维亚政府迫于 “自由贸易”的压力实行自来水民营化政策,并于1999年批准Bechtel子公司Aguas del Tunari为特许经营法人给卡恰邦布市提供各种水服务。其后,此公司大幅增加水价,甚至禁止贫民储蓄雨水,结果引发当地民众的示威游行和数次罢工。当地政府的戒严搜捕事件发生后,引起各方关注,迫于压力,该市的供水系统于2004年重新回归公营。为此,Bechtel公司向玻政府提出5000万美元的索赔。

卡市供水事件背后的关键词是“自由贸易、跨国公司、腐败政府对强权的屈从和助虐”,对于整个事件是不是我们也可以运用“反人类罪”来形容呢?

动不动就“上纲上线”,这已经不是很奇怪的事了,多年来一些中国人已经养成了“做秀远大于讨论解决问题”的习惯。在他们眼里,非黑即白,身在自由世界享受着自由的空气,但是对中国的事务却奉行着极端的意识形态言行。比如,“反人类罪”这个名词,不能说是时髦新词,但却是近年来一些人非常喜欢玩弄的字眼,而且运用这个字眼时带有强烈的倾向性,对自己不喜欢的则批头批脑地给对方带上这顶帽子,而对一些行为却是不知情、不关心。

如果作为华人网友的你,还不够格被带上反人类罪行的帽子,一些“先知先觉”“富有启蒙思想”的中国人会放柔身段,关心地问你“中国人,你为什么要同情萨达姆”?

而事实是,大多数中国人对事物的观察是直观的感性的,比如一位网友说了粗话,“看照片好象是恐怖分子在杀人,究竟谁TM是恐怖分子呀?”。而我,当看到当地报纸上刊登的处死萨达姆这一突然消息(Break News)时,第一感却是“窃钩者盗,窃国者侯。堂堂一个国家去执法,却如同做贼一样,可笑可怜。”

最后,让我们看一篇文章。

这篇文章向西方世界的普通民众提出一个问题,你们愿意不愿意了解了此事在穆斯林世界的反响,除了听到支持者的欢呼声外,愿意不愿意听到更多其他穆斯林人的声音?

作者是英国独立报(The Independent)在中东的记者生于肯特郡的英国人罗伯特. 菲斯克(Robert Fisk),他长期居住在黎巴嫩。

2006年12月30日,罗伯特在独立报上发表文章《一个由美国制造和毁灭的独裁者》(A dictator created then destroyed by America)。以下是其简译:

萨达姆走上了绞架。我们的领导人告诉我们这是非同寻常的一天。但是阿拉伯人不会忘记,执行萨达姆死刑是在穆斯林的古尔邦节(宰牲节)前夕。我们的报纸也不会报道,虽然现在处死了一个罪恶的人,那么其他有罪的人怎么办?(what about the other guilty men?)当然,布莱尔首相不是萨达姆,他并没有象萨达姆一样用毒气杀害敌手;布什总统也不是萨达姆,他并没有入侵伊朗和科威特,他只是占领了伊拉克。但是数十万伊拉克平民丧生了,同时数千名西方士兵死掉了。为什么发生这样的死亡,只是因为在2003年布什、布莱尔及西班牙首相、意大利首相、澳大利亚首相等先生们发动的战争,一场基于谎言的战争(a potage of lies and mendacity)。

我们鼓励1980年的萨达姆入侵伊朗,这场战争导致百万级别的人口伤亡。在这场战争中,是谁出售给化学武器给萨达姆,这些武器被用在伊朗人和库尔德人身上。既然存在着这样的事实,那么我们也就不用惊讶于在审判萨达姆的法庭上美国人禁止提及任何与此相关的萨达姆罪行。至于在始于2003年的这场战争中曾经使用过的贫铀弹、集束弹、白磷燃烧弹,以及在所谓胜利之后所释放出来的无政府灾难,谁会感到有罪恶感呢?也许将来,当布什和布莱尔享受着舒适富有的退休生活之时,会在他们的自传中发现那么一些对罪恶感的补偿性(expiation)描写。

对于萨达姆,我已经分类例举过他的罪行,也曾经与库尔德的受害者谈过话,他们的不少亲人被萨达姆吊死了。我的同行,汤姆.弗里德(Tom Friedman),早在2003年以前,就深入地刻画了诸如萨达姆此类独裁者的残酷成性的特征。但是,这是不是就是阿拉伯世界对萨达姆的看法呢?不可否认,那些遭受萨达姆迫害的阿拉伯人对萨达姆的死刑是非常欢迎。但是数百万的其他穆斯林如何看待呢?

大家都清楚,死刑的判决虽然来自于伊拉克政府,但却是代表着美国人的意志。

同时,大家也清楚死刑是发生在伊斯兰世界的宰牲节前夜。我们知道,宰牲节来源于可兰经中的这么一段记载:上帝要求易卜拉欣把爱子杀掉,以验其对上帝的诚意,易卜拉欣欣然照办,带着儿子来到旷野准备处死孩子,但就在此时,天使奉上帝之命送来一头糕羊,以代表其子作为向上帝的奉献。我们也知道,由犹太教派出了基督教和伊斯兰教,二者都认可旧约中亚伯拉罕部分,在圣经旧约中,我们可以看到与宰牲节起源同样的情节。宰牲节到来,穆斯林们穿新衣宰牲口,煮肉做饭,施舍穷人,青年男女载歌载舞,招待来宾。(对于古尔邦节中国政府规定这一天给穆斯林职工放假,根据伊斯兰教历此次古尔邦节在公历2006年12月30日)

在这么一个特殊的节日背景下,对萨达姆的死刑,会产生什么样的效果?是不是可以认为美国人处死了一个阿拉伯领导人,而这个领导人因为不再听从华盛顿的命令而被处死?是不是可以认为萨达姆作为“殉教者”死于新“十字军战士”手下?
估计奥萨马•本•拉登(Osama bin Laden)与布什、布莱尔同样高兴看到萨达姆之死。更多的罪恶,伴随着复仇而兴起(So many crimes avenged)。

附文:
Robert Fisk: A dictator created then destroyed by America
Published: 30 December 2006  http://news.independent.co.uk/world/fisk/article2112555.ece

Saddam to the gallows. It was an easy equation. Who could be more deserving of that last walk to the scaffold - that crack of the neck at the end of a rope - than the Beast of Baghdad, the Hitler of the Tigris, the man who murdered untold hundreds of thousands of innocent Iraqis while spraying chemical weapons over his enemies? Our masters will tell us in a few hours that it is a "great day" for Iraqis and will hope that the Muslim world will forget that his death sentence was signed - by the Iraqi "government", but on behalf of the Americans - on the very eve of the Eid al-Adha, the Feast of the Sacrifice, the moment of greatest forgiveness in the Arab world.

But history will record that the Arabs and other Muslims and, indeed, many millions in the West, will ask another question this weekend, a question that will not be posed in other Western newspapers because it is not the narrative laid down for us by our presidents and prime ministers - what about the other guilty men?

No, Tony Blair is not Saddam. We don't gas our enemies. George W Bush is not Saddam. He didn't invade Iran or Kuwait. He only invaded Iraq. But hundreds of thousands of Iraqi civilians are dead - and thousands of Western troops are dead - because Messrs Bush and Blair and the Spanish Prime Minister and the Italian Prime Minister and the Australian Prime Minister went to war in 2003 on a potage of lies and mendacity and, given the weapons we used, with great brutality.

In the aftermath of the international crimes against humanity of 2001 we have tortured, we have murdered, we have brutalised and killed the innocent - we have even added our shame at Abu Ghraib to Saddam's shame at Abu Ghraib - and yet we are supposed to forget these terrible crimes as we applaud the swinging corpse of the dictator we created.

Who encouraged Saddam to invade Iran in 1980, which was the greatest war crime he has committed for it led to the deaths of a million and a half souls? And who sold him the components for the chemical weapons with which he drenched Iran and the Kurds? We did. No wonder the Americans, who controlled Saddam's weird trial, forbad any mention of this, his most obscene atrocity, in the charges against him. Could he not have been handed over to the Iranians for sentencing for this massive war crime? Of course not. Because that would also expose our culpability.

And the mass killings we perpetrated in 2003 with our depleted uranium shells and our "bunker buster" bombs and our phosphorous, the murderous post-invasion sieges of Fallujah and Najaf, the hell-disaster of anarchy we unleashed on the Iraqi population in the aftermath of our "victory" - our "mission accomplished" - who will be found guilty of this? Such expiation as we might expect will come, no doubt, in the self-serving memoirs of Blair and Bush, written in comfortable and wealthy retirement.

Hours before Saddam's death sentence, his family - his first wife, Sajida, and Saddam's daughter and their other relatives - had given up hope.

"Whatever could be done has been done - we can only wait for time to take its course," one of them said last night. But Saddam knew, and had already announced his own "martyrdom": he was still the president of Iraq and he would die for Iraq. All condemned men face a decision: to die with a last, grovelling plea for mercy or to die with whatever dignity they can wrap around themselves in their last hours on earth. His last trial appearance - that wan smile that spread over the mass-murderer's face - showed us which path Saddam intended to walk to the noose.

I have catalogued his monstrous crimes over the years. I have talked to the Kurdish survivors of Halabja and the Shia who rose up against the dictator at our request in 1991 and who were betrayed by us - and whose comrades, in their tens of thousands, along with their wives, were hanged like thrushes by Saddam's executioners.

I have walked round the execution chamber of Abu Ghraib - only months, it later transpired, after we had been using the same prison for a few tortures and killings of our own - and I have watched Iraqis pull thousands of their dead relatives from the mass graves of Hilla. One of them has a newly-inserted artificial hip and a medical identification number on his arm. He had been taken directly from hospital to his place of execution. Like Donald Rumsfeld, I have even shaken the dictator's soft, damp hand. Yet the old war criminal finished his days in power writing romantic novels.

It was my colleague, Tom Friedman - now a messianic columnist for The New York Times - who perfectly caught Saddam's character just before the 2003 invasion: Saddam was, he wrote, "part Don Corleone, part Donald Duck". And, in this unique definition, Friedman caught the horror of all dictators; their sadistic attraction and the grotesque, unbelievable nature of their barbarity.

But that is not how the Arab world will see him. At first, those who suffered from Saddam's cruelty will welcome his execution. Hundreds wanted to pull the hangman's lever. So will many other Kurds and Shia outside Iraq welcome his end. But they - and millions of other Muslims - will remember how he was informed of his death sentence at the dawn of the Eid al-Adha feast, which recalls the would-be sacrifice by Abraham, of his son, a commemoration which even the ghastly Saddam cynically used to celebrate by releasing prisoners from his jails. "Handed over to the Iraqi authorities," he may have been before his death. But his execution will go down - correctly - as an American affair and time will add its false but lasting gloss to all this - that the West destroyed an Arab leader who no longer obeyed his orders from Washington, that, for all his wrongdoing (and this will be the terrible get-out for Arab historians, this shaving away of his crimes) Saddam died a "martyr" to the will of the new "Crusaders".

When he was captured in November of 2003, the insurgency against American troops increased in ferocity. After his death, it will redouble in intensity again. Freed from the remotest possibility of Saddam's return by his execution, the West's enemies in Iraq have no reason to fear the return of his Baathist regime. Osama bin Laden will certainly rejoice, along with Bush and Blair. And there's a thought. So many crimes avenged.

But we will have got away with it.

(来源:读者来稿,作者:马铭)